Service discovery implementation guidelines

For a conceptual overview of service discovery, consult the service discovery concept page.

Best practices

Exposing config maps for service discovery

The question about which interfaces to expose varies from product to product and must be decided on an individual basis. However, as far as possible the exposed services should be reachable via Kubernetes services like ClusterIP or NodePort.

Consuming config maps for service discovery

The operator that discovers a service has two options for retrieving the information and providing it into the pods:

  1. Mount the discovery ConfigMap into the Pod directly as an environment variable. This can be used for products supporting setting values via CLI or can work with environment variables in their respective configuration files.

  2. Read the discovery ConfigMap and provide its content via the usual product configuration ConfigMap. This is in general a cleaner way if the product does not support setting values via CLI or environment variables in the configuration files because it avoids writing shell scripts to override the values manually.

Implementation details

The following section offers some Rust code snippets to get an idea on how to create or retrieve the information in the discovery ConfigMap. As a convention, the name of that discovery ConfigMap is the name of the cluster. A deployed Stackable ZooKeeper cluster named simple-zk in namespace production will deploy a discovery ConfigMap production/simple-zk.

Create a discovery ConfigMap

Remember, per convention the discovery ConfigMap name of a cluster must be equal to the cluster name. The following code demonstrates how to create a discovery ConfigMap using the ConfigMapBuilder of the operator-rs framework:

use stackable_operator::builder::{ConfigMapBuilder, ObjectMetaBuilder};

let cm = ConfigMapBuilder::new()
            .ownerreference_from_resource(my_cluster, None, Some(true))?
    .add_data("CONNECT_STRING", "http://localhost:12345")

Consume a discovery ConfigMap

Given a discovery ConfigMap:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
  name: my-config-map-name
  namespace: production
  CONNECT_STRING: "http://localhost:12345"

Mounting the discovery ConfigMap

This is a method to retrieve an EnvVar from a ConfigMap:

use stackable_operator::k8s_openapi::api::{
       ConfigMapKeySelector, EnvVar, EnvVarSource,

fn env_var_from_cm(name: &str, configmap_name: &str) -> EnvVar {
    EnvVar {
        name: name.to_string(),
        value_from: Some(EnvVarSource {
            config_map_key_ref: Some(ConfigMapKeySelector {
                name: Some(configmap_name.to_string()),
                key: name.to_string(),

The returned EnvVar then can be added to a Pod container and used in the command or args field using the operator-rs framework container builder:

use stackable_operator::builder::ContainerBuilder;

let container = ContainerBuilder::new("my-container")
    .command(vec!["/bin/bash".to_string(), "-c".to_string()])
    .args(vec!["./do_magic", "--with-env-var", "${CONNECT_STRING}"])
    .add_env_var(env_var_from_cm("CONNECT_STRING", "my-config-map-name"))

Reading the discovery ConfigMap

This is a method to read one entry of a discovery ConfigMap from an operator:

use stackable_operator::{

async fn entry_from_cm(
    client: &Client,
    name: &str,
    namespace: Option<&str>,
    entry: &str,
) -> OperatorResult<String> {
        .get::<ConfigMap>(name, namespace)
        .and_then(|mut data| data.remove(entry))

let connection_string = entry_from_cm(client, "my-config-map-name", Some("production"), "CONNECT_STRING").await?;

The retrieved connection string can be used to configure the product to connect to the discovered service.

Existing libraries

Currently, there is not much support from the operator-rs framework to assist with service discovery. The related code is mostly contained in each operator and similar to the examples above.

The following list should indicate support for certain products or helper methods:

  • ConfigMapBuilder in combination with ObjectMetaBuilder assists with building the discovery ConfigMap

  • OPA: The operator-rs framework has a module called that supports the creation of the data API connection string